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Citing Business Databases   Tags: apa, business, citing, databases  

Last Updated: Jun 16, 2014 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Citing Business Databases in APA Print Page

General APA Guide

General APA Guide

Covers citing books, articles, web sites, etc.


What's new this summer:

On July 1, the library switched from Web of Science to Scopus, a more comprehensive but much less expensive product for citation counts and article searching. Details on the switch. Feel free to contact me with questions.

NCLIVE changes for 2015-17

New video tutorial: How to Find Trade Articles using Business Source Complete


What is EndNote?

Guide to EndNote Web (the online version)

Guide to EndNote X3 (the full-feature desktop version)

What is Endnote?

EndNote allows you to import citations from library databases or Google Scholar. You can then use EndNote with MS Word to automatically create in text citations and bibliographies in hundreds of different citation styles. UNCG provides current students and employees with access to two versions of EndNote.

EndNote X3 is an application installed on computers in campus computer labs. Features:

  • You can import references from most library databases, from the library catalog, and from Google Scholar
  • Your references are stored in an "Endnote Library" file (.enl) that resides on your computer
  • You can attach pdf files to references in your EndNote library
  • You can organize your references into folders within your EndNote library
  • You can customize your EndNote library to display the full names of journals in references imported from PubMed
  • You can use the EndNote tab in MS Word to insert citations from your library, to auto-generate a bibliography, and to switch between citation styles
  • Up to 30 people at one time may use this application

EndNote Web is a site where you can create your own account to upload, organize, share, and format citations. Features:

  • You can import references from most library databases, from the library catalog, and from Google Scholar
  • Your references are stored in your account at
  • You can share your references with other EndNote Web users and allow them to edit your references
  • You can NOT attach pdf files to these references

Example Citations

Academic Search Complete
Annual reports
Business Insights
Business Source Complete
CCH IntelliConnect
Commodity Codes
Consumer Expenditure Survey (BLS)
Country Commercial Guides
Customs Info (Global Tariffs)
Entrepreneurial Studies Source
Euromonitor Passport GMID
Europa World
Fashion Snoops
General Onefile
GTIS: U.S. State Export Edition
Historical Statistics of the United States
Hospitality and Tourism Complete
IBIS Industry Market Research
IRS 990 forms (nonprofits)
Legal Information Reference Center
LexisNexis Academic
MarketLine Profiles (Business Source Complete)
Mergent Intellect (Hoovers records)
Mergent Online
Morningstar National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers
NAICS & SIC Industry Codes
Occupational Employment Statistics (BLS)
RIA Checkpoint
RMA eStatement Studies
Small Business Reference Center
USITC Trade Database
Wall Street Journal (via Proquest)
Web sites
World DataBank 

As much as possible, these examples follow the 2007 APA Style Guide to Electronic References, which has been incorporated into the 6th edition (2010) of the APA Manual.

The APA Style Guide to Electronic References states "With the exception of hard-to-find books and other documents of limited circulation delivered by electronic databases, the database name is no longer a necessary element of the reference. If you do include the database name in a reference, do not include the database URL" (p. 2, emphasis mine). I decided to include database names when the database URL would not be distinctive (ex. Ebsco, Proquest, and Gale databases).

The 6th edition quotes from the 4th: "The...Manual presents explicit style requirements but acknowledges that alternatives are sometimes necessary; authors should balance the rules...with good judgment"  (p. 5, emphasis mine). 

Academic Search Complete

Robie, C., Emmons, T., Tuzinski, K. A., & Kantrowitz, T. (2011). Effects of an

     economic recession on leader personality and general mental ability scores.

     International Journal of Selection & Assessment, 19(2),

     183-189. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2389.2011.00545.x

Benesh, C. (2009). Contempoary Japanese fashion. Ornament, 33(2), 18-19.

     Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

[APA wants you to use the DOI (Digitial Object Identifier) when provided; then you don't name the database nor provide its URL.]

Annual Reports


Wells Fargo. (2013). 2012 Annual report. Retrieved from



BizMiner. (2014). Industry financial profile (5 year): [611610.04] Dance schools and 

     instruction: all US; sales class: industry-wide. Retrieved January 22, 2014 from

BizMiner. (2014). Industry financial profile (5 year): [611610.04] Dance schools and

     instruction: Greensboro-Winston-Salem-High Point, NC; sales class: $1 - $499,999. 

     Retrieved January 22, 2014 from

BizMiner. (2013, June). Startup profit & loss profile (5 year version): [441228.0202]

     Snowmobiles, parts and accessories retail. Retrieved January 24, 2014 from

BizMiner. (2013, June). Industry market report: [722511.0204] Vietnamese restaurants 

     (full-service); State of North Carolina. Retrieved January 24, 2014 from

Business Insights


Gale Cengage Learning. (2014). Facebook, Inc. [company profile]. Retrieved March

     3, 2014, from the Business Insights database.

Gale Cengage Learning. (2014). Facebook, Inc. International directory of company

     histories. Retrieved January 22, 2014, from the Business Insights database.

Gale Cengage Learning. (2014). Social media. Encyclopedia of emerging industries.

     Retrieved January 17, 2014, from the Business Insights database.

Miller, C.C. (2008, December 5). Twitter's dance with Facebook. New York Times,

     p. B6. Retrieved from the Business Insights database.

"Top social networking sites worldwide, 2012" (2012, August 2). Investor's

     Business Daily. p. A4. Reproduced in Market share reporter 2013 . Retrieved from

     the Business Insights database.

GlobalData. (2012, November 5). Macy's, Inc. -- financial and strategic analysis review.

     Retrieved from the Business Insights database. [This is for a SWOT analyses]

Business Source Complete


Quittner, J. (2011, April 4). Facebook and Google encroach on banks' turf. American

     Banker176(51), 1-5. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

MarketLine. (2013, September 30). Barnes and Noble, Inc. company profile. Retrieved 

    from Business Source Complete database.

MarketLine. (2013, June). Toys & games in Asia-Pacific industry profile.

     Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

PRS Group. (2013, November 1). Brazil country report, Political Risk Yearbook.

     Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

CCH IntelliConnect


Luscombe, M. A. (2013, December 1). Tax trends -- planning with the final repair

     regulations. Taxes - the Tax Magazine.  91(12). Retrieved from

 North Carolina State Tax Reporter. (n.d.).  ¶10-240, North Carolina, Limited Liability

     Companies (LLCs). Retrieved January 6, 2014 from


Population data:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). Guildford County, North Carolina -- ACS demographic

     and housing estimates (1-Year Estimates) [Table]. Retrieved from

Economic Census:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). Retail trade: Geographic area series: Summary

     statistics for the United States, states, metro areas, counties, and places:

     2007. [Table]. Retrieved from

County Business Patterns:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Forsyth County, North Carolina -- 2011 county

     business patterns (NAICS). [Table]. Retrieved from

Commodity Codes


Harmonized codes:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2013). Schedule XI-chapter 60, knitted or crocheted fabrics.

     Retrieved from

SITC codes:

United Nations Statistical Division. (2011). SITC rev. 4 code 573.11. Retrieved from



United Nations Statistical Division. (2013). Data retrieved February 10, 2013,


Consumer Expenditure Survey (BLS)


Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2012). Race of reference person: Shares of average

     annual expenditures and sources of income, Consumer Expenditure Survey

     2012 [Table]. Retrieved from

Country Commercial Guides

U.S. Commerical Service, Department of Commerce. (2013). Argentina.

     Country Commercial Guide. Retrieved from

Customs Info (Global Tariffs)

Customs Info. (2013). Tariff data for Brazil: HS 842230. Retrieved January

     26, 2014 from



DemographicsNow. (2014). Income comparison for Cramerton, Kernersville,

     and Shelby, NC. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from

DemographicsNow. (2014). CEX - apparel detail summary for zip code 27101.

     Retrieved March 31, 2014 from



Herrman, M.  (2010). Monopoly pricing of an antibiotic subject to bacterial

    resistance. Journal of Health Economics, 29, 137-50.


[EconLit usually provides the DOI (Digitial Object Identifier), which APA requires you to use instead of "Retrieved from EconLit."]



General Electric. (2013, September 30). 10-Q. Retrieved from

Entrepreneurial Studies Source

Valentine, M. (2013, April 11). Engaging audiences with advertising etiquette.

     Marketing Week, 27-30. Retrieved from Entrepreneurial Studies Source


MarketLine (2013, February 22). Caribou Coffee Company [company profile].

     Retrieved from Entrepreneurial Studies Source database.

Simmons, J. (2007). GBS: My Sister's a Barista Starbucks. Marshall Cavendish Limited.

     Retrieved from Entrepreneurial Studies Source database. [For an ebook]

Euromonitor Passport GMID


Euromonitor. (2014). Consumer spending on women's footwear by

     country, 2007-2012 [table]. Retrieved January 22, 2013, from

Euromonitor. (2013, June 3). Retailing - Egypt . Retrieved from

Europa World


German, R.& Taylor, E. (n.d.). Economy - Egypt. Retrieved January 10, 2014, 


Fashion Snoops


Fashion Snoops. (2013). Men active wear design themes Fall/Winter 2013/2014.

     Retrieved January 11, 2014 from Fashion Snoops Database.

General OneFile


Socha, M. (2013, August 8).Oscar and Galliano In talks over role. WWD, 206(27), 1. 

     Retrieved January 7, 2014, from General OneFile database. 

GTIS: U.S. State Export Edition


Global Trade Information Services. (2014). North Carolina exports of HS 360200. 

     Data retrieved March 12, 2014, from

Historical Statistics of the United States


Historical Statistics of the United States Millennial Edition Online. (2006).

     Female-to-male earnings ratios: 1815-1987 [Table]. Retrieved from

Margo, R. (2006). Wages and wage inequality. In Historical Statistics of the

     United States Millennial Edition Online. Retrieved from     [This cite is for an essay, not a table]

Hospitality and Tourism Complete


Long-Zeng, W., Eliza Ching-Yick, T., Pingping, F., Ho Kwong, K., & and Jun, L. (2013).

     The impact of servant leadership on hotel employees' "servant behavior". Cornell

     Hospitality Quarterly, 54(4), 383-395. doi:10.1177/1938965513482519

Marin, M. (2013, September 7). Marriott's sustainable initiative creates global benefits. Hotel Business,

     22(15), 8. Retrieved from Hospitality & Tourism Complete.

[Use the DOI number and not the name of the database when the DOI is provided]

IBIS Industry Market Research


Giraldo, V. (2013, November). Family clothing stores in the US. Retrieved from

IRS 990 forms (nonprofits)

Preservation Greensboro, Inc. (2012). IRS Form 990. Retrieved from

Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, Inc. (2013). IRS Form 990 Retrieved from

Legal Information Reference Center


DelPo, A. and Guerin, L. (2010). The Manager's Legal Handbook. Berkeley: Nolo.

     Retrieved from Legal Information Reference Center database.

     [You may have to look up the author yourself in Amazon or Google Books.]

LexisNexis Academic


Morton, A. (2013, November 28). NZ: Industry teams up to research "lifestyle" wines.

     Just-Drinks Global News. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.

Shanghai Daily. (2013, November 12). Chinese get increasingly thirsty for Spanish wines.

     Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database. [an example of an anonymous article]

Hoover's. (2013, December 4). Apple Computer, Inc. [Hoover's company records -

     in-depth records]. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic database.

MarketLine Profiles (from Business Source Complete)


MarketLine. (2013, October 9). Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW Group) company

     profile. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

MarketLine. (2013, March). Games consoles industry profile: France. Retrieved from

     Business Source Complete database.

Mergent Intellect (Hoovers records)


Mergent Intellect. (2014). Apple Computer, Inc. Retrieved January 10, 2014  


Mergent Online


Mergent. (2014). Apple Inc. company financials: income statement. Retrieved

     January 16, 2014 from

Mergent. (2011). Europe: Media sectors [industry report]. Retrieved January 7,

     2014, from



Romanowski, S. (2013, December). Natural and organic personal care consumer - US. 

     Retrieved from from

Hulkower, B. (2013, November). Bundled communication services - US . Retrieved

     from from



Hughes, B.B. (2013, March 15). Vanguard Dividend Growth Inv [fund analysis]. Retrieved


Hottovy, R.J. (2013, October 24). Dunkin Brands Group Inc. [stock analysis]. Retrieved from

Morningstar. (2014). Ford Motor Co.: key ratios. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from

NAICS & SIC Industry Codes


NAICS codes:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). 2012 NAICS definitions: 448110, men's clothing stores.

     Retrieved from

SIC codes:

Occupational Safety & Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. (1987). 

     SIC description for 2251. Retrieved from

National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers


Office of the United States Trade Representative. (2014). Brazil. National trade

     estimate report on foreign trade barriers. Retrieved from

Occupational Employment Statistics (BLS)

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013, May).  Occupational Employment and Wages:

     Captains, Mates, and Pilots of Water Vessels. Retrieved from

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013, May). National Industry-Specific Occupational

     Employment and Wage Estimates: NAICS 482100 - Rail Transportation. Retrieved




International Trade Centre, United Nations Statistical Division. (2013). Data

     retrieved January 30, 2014, from the Personal Computer -- Trade Analysis

     System database.

RIA Checkpoint


RIA. (2014). 2014 RIA federal tax handbook: 3703. Limited liability companies

     (LLCs). Retrieved from RIA Checkpoint database.

Quint, J. (2013, May/June). Applying intercompany transaction rules to

partnership terminations. Journal of Corporate Taxation. Retrieved from RIA

     Checkpoint database.

RMA eStatement Studies


Risk Management Association. (2013). Financial ratio benchmarks for NAICS

     312130. Retrieved January 31, 2014 from RMA eStatement Studies database.



Geographic Research. (2014). Imported beer/ale: Drank in last 6 months.

     Mediamark data retrieved March 10, 2014, from

Geographic Research. (2014). Map based on family income : $150,000+, from

     Census data, downloaded March 10, 2014, from

Small Business Reference Center

Mancuso, A. (2013). Incorporate your business. Berkeley: Nolo. Retrieved from

     Small Business Reference Center database. [For an ebook]

Miller, R.K. and Washington, K. (2013). Chapter 45: the bridal & wedding market.

     Retail Business Market Research Handbook, 286-289. Retrieved from the Small

     Business Reference Center database. [For an industry report]

Calan, J. (2013). Long road to The Cup of Excellence. African Business, (401), 78-80.

     Retrieved from the Small Business Reference Center database. [For an article]


National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2013, November). Amount of text messages

     sent in China from October 2012 to October 2013 (in billions). Retrieved

     January 9, 2014 from Statista database.

Statista. (2013). Beer production and distribution - Statista dossier 2013. Retrieved

     January 8, 2014 from Statista database.

USITC Trade Database


United States International Trade Commission. (2014). Trade data retrieved

     March 11, 2014, from

Wall Street Journal (via Proquest)


Murray, S. (2013, Dec 11). Careers: GM's Barra a breakthrough --- a milestone for

     women, but challenges remain. Wall Street Journal, B7. Retrieved from the

     ProQuest database.

Web Sites


Ford Motor Company. (2014). Sustainability. Retrieved January 10, 2014,


[When a web page doesn't include a personal author, use the name of the company or organization instead. If you can't find such a name, use the domain name as the author, ex. for a page from, "Computrition" would be the author.]

World DataBank


World Bank. (2014). CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Data retrieved

     March 2, 2014, from World DataBank: World Development Indicators


Business Librarian:


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